1. Devaluation of the Bible.
2. Devaluation of the nature of God.
3. Denial of the Trinity.
4. Devaluation of the Person of Christ.
5. Devaluation of the life and work of Christ.
6. Non-biblical teachings about the Holy Spirit.
7. Exalted view of human nature.
8. False basis of salvation.
9. Non-biblical teachings about the after-life.
10. Demonic activity denied or overemphasized.
1. Deceptive recruiting practices.
2. Dynamic and authoritarian leadership.
4. Cultic vocabulary.
5. Alienation from family and friends.
7. Induced fatigue.
8. Sanction oriented.
10. Thought stopping.
11. No professional clergy.
12. Doctrine in flux/false prophesies.
13. Financial exploitation.
14. Mind control.
Sources Consulted in
Developing List of Cultic Characteristics
Arteburn, Stephen and Jack Felton. Toxic Faith:
Understanding and Overcoming Religious Addiction. Nashville: Thomas Nelson
Ashe, Steven. Cult Induced Psychopathology. n.a.
Breese, Dave. Know the Marks of a Cult. Wheaton, IL victor Books, 1980.
Brooks, Keith. "The Spirit of Truth and the Spirit of Error." revised by Irvine
Robertson. Chicago: Moody Press, 1985.
Cult Awareness Network, leaflet. Princeton, WV: Conner Printing, 1987.
Enroth, Ronald. "What is a Cult?" Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1982.
Hassan, Steven. Combatting Cult Mind Control. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press,
Knapp, Pat. "Aberrant
Christianity: What Is It?." The Shield, April, 1988, 1-3.
Lewis, Gordon. Confronting the Cults. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988.
MacCollam, Joel. Carnival of Souls: Religious Cults and Young People. New York,
Seabury Press, 1979.
Martin, Walter. Essential Christianity. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1980.
Kingdom of the Cults. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House, 1985.
New Cults. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1980.
McDowell, Josh and Don Stewart. Handbook of Today's Religions. San Bernardino,
CA: Here's Life Publishers, 1983.
Tucker, Ruth. Another Gospel. Grand Rapids, MI: Academie Books, 1989.